Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov dismissed the intelligence claims as a sham.
The Taliban on Wednesday accused the government of fabricating criminal cases against the prisoners.
Gen. Frank McKenzie said the U.S. did not increase force protection measures in Afghanistan as a result of the information.
So far the U.S. has reduced U.S. troop presence in Afghanistan from 12,000 to 8,600.
"The larger question we should pose is who benefits from the release of this information? The obvious answer is Russia."
The Afghan government has insisted there was no military activity in the Taliban-controlled area at the time of the attack.
Pompeo and Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar held a video conference in which Pompeo pressed the insurgents to reduce violence.
The White House didn't respond to questions about Trump or other officials’ awareness of Russia’s provocations in 2019.
Afghanistan has seen a recent spike in violence.
President Donald Trump on Sunday denied that he had been briefed on reported U.S. intelligence that a Russian military...